Numerical Simulation of Turbulence and Flow Velocity Distribution Around the Spur Dike Using FLUENT

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Bushehr Unit, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran.

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Yasuj Branch, Yasouj University, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, Iran

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Yasuj Branch, Yasouj University, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, Iran.



Spur dikes are the intersecting or transverse structures, which are projected from the river bank toward the flow axis and cause diversion and direction of the flow from the banks towards central axis of the river. This structure affects the flow lines and causes change in the river flow pattern and protects the banks against erosion. Recognition of the flow pattern around a spur dike could help in a better understanding of the scour pattern and, as a result, achieving an accurate value of maximum scour depth. In this study, the k- turbulence models are investigated in determining the rotational flow and flow field around 𝜺 the spur-dike using FLUENT software. The results show that the software incorporating the k- model could appropriately 𝜺 model velocity distribution around the spur dike and the results exhibit a good compatibility with an average error of 9.24%.


Main Subjects

1. Osman AM, Thorne CR. Riverbank stability analysis. I: Theory. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 1988;114(2):134-50.
2. Lagasse PF. Riprap design criteria, recommended specifications, and quality control: Transportation Research Board; 2006.
3. Vaghefi M, Ghodsian M, Salehi Neyshaboori S. Experimental study on the effect of a T-shaped spur dike length on scour in a 90 channel bend. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2009;34(2):337. 4. Ishii C, Asada H, Kishi T, editors. Shape of separation region formed behind a groyne of non-overflow type in rivers. XX IAHR Congress, Moscow, USSR; 1983.
5. Kadota A, Suzuki K, Uijttewaal W, editors. The shallow flow around a single groyne under submerged and emerged conditions. River Flow; 2006.
6. Fei-Yong C, Ikeda S. Horizontal separation flows in shallow open channels with spur dikes. Journal of Hydroscience and hydraulic Engineering. 1997;15(2):15-30.
7. Ghodsian M, Vaghefi M. Experimental study on scour and flow field in a scour hole around a T-shape spur dike in a 90 bend. International Journal of Sediment Research. 2009;24(2):145-58.
8. Safarzadeh A, Salehi Neyshabouri SAA, Zarrati AR. Experimental investigation on 3D turbulent Flow around straight and T-Shaped groynes in a flat bed channel. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2016;142(8):04016021.
9. Molinas A, Kheireldin K, Wu B. Shear stress around vertical wall abutments. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 1998;124(8):822-30.
10. Kuhnle RA, Jia Y, Alonso CV. Measured and simulated flow near a submerged spur dike. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2008;134(7):916-24.
11. Kuhnle RA, Alonso CV, Shields Jr FD. Local scour associated with angled spur dikes. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2002;128(12):1087-93.
12. Vaghefi M, Safarpoor Y, Hashemi SS. Effects of relative curvature on the scour pattern in a 90° bend with a T-shaped spur dike using a numerical method. International Journal of River Basin Management. 2015;13(4):501-14.
13. Yazdi J, Sarkardeh H, Azamathulla HM, Ghani AA. 3D simulation of flow around a single spur dike with free-surface flow. Intl J River Basin Management. 2010;8(1):55-62.
14. Salaheldin TM, Imran J, Chaudhry MH. Numerical modeling of threedimensional flow field around circular piers. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2004;130(2):91-100.
15. Vaghefi M, Shakerdargah M, Fiouz A, Akbari M. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Froude Number on Flow Pattern around a Single T-shaped Spur Dike in a Bend Channel. International Journal of Engineering Research. 2014;3(5):351-5.
16. Hirt CW, Nichols BD. Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. Journal of computational physics. 1981;39(1):201-25.
17. Karami H, Basser H, Ardeshir A, Hosseini SH. Verification of numerical study of scour around spur dikes usi