The effect of non-simultaneous excavation of closely-spaced twin tunnels on ground surface settlement

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran.

Abstract

Tunnel excavation on soil lands may leads to horizontal and vertical displacements around the tunnel. The displacements can reach the ground surface and cause damages to existing structures on the ground. Hence it is so important to estimate the ground settlement induced by excavation, particularly in urban environments. In this study, the effect of longitudinal distance between two tunnel faces on ground surface settlement is examined during the excavation of twin tunnels. Accordingly, the ground settlement is measured for the states where the distance between tunnel faces is 0D, 0.5D, 1D, 1.5D and 2D. The most important results suggest that creating a longitudinal distance (lagging) between the faces of twin tunnels during excavation operations causes changes in surface ground settlement. The maximum surface ground settlement along the width and length of tunnels decreases as the distance between two tunnel faces increases.

Keywords


 [1] Lotfollahi S, Ghorji M, HOSEINI TV. An Investigation into the Effect of Foliation Orientation on Displacement of Tunnels Excavated in Metamorphic Rocks, Journal of Civil Engineering and Materials Application, 2018 (September); 2 (3): 138-145. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].                

 

[2] Naseri F. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Rock Materials. Journal of Civil Engineering and Materials Application. 2017 Oct 17;1(2):39-44.  [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

[3] Carr AJ. Tunnel design [Book Review]. New Zealand Engineering. 1982 Jul;37(6):53. [View at Google Scholar] [View at Publisher].

 [4] Kuesel TR, King EH, Bickel JO. Tunnel engineering handbook. Springer Science & Business Media; 2012 Dec 6. [View at Google Scholar] [View at Publisher].

 [5] Yang XL, Wang JM. Ground movement prediction for tunnels using simplified procedure. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2011 May 1;26(3):462-71. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [6] Yamaguchi I, Yamazaki I, Kiritani Y. Study of ground-tunnel interactions of four shield tunnels driven in close proximity, in relation to design and construction of parallel shield tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 1998 Jul 1;13(3):289-304. [View at Google Scholar] [View at Publisher].

 [7] Do NA, Dias D, Oreste P, Djeran-Maigre I. 2D numerical investigation of segmental tunnel lining behavior. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2013 Aug 1;37:115-27. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [8] Fang Q, Tai Q, Zhang D, Wong LN. Ground surface settlements due to construction of closely-spaced twin tunnels with different geometric arrangements. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2016 Jan 1;51:144-51. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [9] Fang Q, Zhang D, Li Q, Wong LN. Effects of twin tunnels construction beneath existing shield-driven twin tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2015 Jan 1;45:128-37. [View at Google Scholar] [View at Publisher].

 [10] Jin D, Yuan D, Li X, Zheng H. An in-tunnel grouting protection method for excavating twin tunnels beneath an existing tunnel.Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2018 Jan 1;71:27-35. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [11] Alielahi H, Adampira M. Effect of twin-parallel tunnels on seismic ground response due to vertically in-plane waves. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2016 May 1;85:67-83. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [12] Wang HN, Zeng GS, Utili S, Jiang MJ, Wu L. Analytical solutions of stresses and displacements for deeply buried twin tunnels in viscoelastic rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2017 Mar 1;93:13-29. [View at Google Scholar] [View at Publisher].

 [13] Zhang T, Taylor RN, Divall S, Zheng G, Sun J, Stallebrass SE, Goodey RJ. Explanation for twin tunnelling-induced surface settlements by changes in soil stiffness on account of stress history. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2019 Mar 1;85:160-9. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [14] Gui MW, Chen SL. Estimation of transverse ground surface settlement induced by DOT shield tunneling. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2013 Jan 1;33:119-30. [View at Google Scholar] [View at Publisher].

 [15] Ma L, Ding L, Luo H. Non-linear description of ground settlement over twin tunnels in soil. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2014 May 1;42:144-51. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

[16] Schmidt B. Settlements and ground movements associated with tunnelling in soil. PhD Thesis. 1969. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [17] Zheng G, Zhang T, Diao Y. Mechanism and countermeasures of preceding tunnel distortion induced by succeeding EPBS tunnelling in close proximity. Comput Geotech 2015;66:53–65. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [18] Fargnoli V, Boldini D, Amorosi A. Twin tunnel excavation in coarse grained soils: observations and numerical back-predictions under free field conditions and in presence of a surface structure. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2015 Jun 1;49:454-69. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].

 [19] Brinkgreve RB, Broere W, Burd HJ, Soltys G, Vermeer PA, Waterman D. PLAXIS-3D tunnel version 1.2 tutorial manual. 2007]. Delft University of Technology & PLAXIS BV, TheNetherlands, 5-5-5-17. 2002. [View at Google Scholar] .

 [20] Do NA, Dias D, Oreste P. 3D numerical investigation of mechanized twin tunnels in soft ground–Influence of lagging distance between two tunnel faces. Engineering Structures. 2016 Feb 15; 109:117-25. [View at Google Scholar] ; [View at Publisher].